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Welcome to the 40 Knots Vineyard & Estate Winery blogs. Here is where we will be highlighting events and news from around the winery. Keep up to date of the latest trends, the happenings of the winery, learn how we farm and make wine, and get the inside scoop of our new releases and events.  

Our Bloggers

40 Knots Winery Blog   40 Knots Winery News, Michael Johnson

Layne Robert Craig
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Michael Johnson
Self-proclaimed Sipster


Ziggy Ziggy
January 11, 2023 | Ziggy Ziggy

How to Host a Vegan Wedding Reception in Style

40 Knots winery, vegan weddingThere's a lot to consider when planning a wedding, but for those who are planning a vegan celebration, it can be particularly stressful to make sure the big day fits in with their lifestyle. Here are three steps to help you get started in hosting a vegan wedding reception in style.

1. Choose a Vegan-Friendly Venue

It's important that your wedding venue respects your desire for a completely vegan wedding so that they can tailor their services and produce accordingly. For example, you might ask that they avoid serving beverages that contain animal products or using decorations that contain things like feathers and leather. You may also want to hire an outside caterer rather than using their in-house catering services if the venue is inexperienced in producing vegan food.

When visiting venues, be upfront about your needs to see how receptive they are in creating a vegan environment. You might also consider the wider impact of a venue on animal welfare. For example, a rural venue that has acres of land surrounding it might use this to farm animals or host hunts. Be sure to ask questions about how the entire venue is used and not just the parts that you'll be using for your wedding. This will give you peace of mind that your wedding isn't contributing to animal cruelty.

40 Knots Winery, Vegan Wedding

2. Prep Bridal Boutiques and Tailors Before Visiting

Silk, which is harvested from silkworms, is a common material found in wedding dresses. It's often included in satin, chiffon and tulle, so it's not enough to simply avoid pure silk when searching for a wedding dress. When it comes to suits and tuxedos, wool and cashmere are common non-vegan materials to avoid. It's also fairly common for luxury ties, suits and shirts to contain silk. There's leather to avoid when buying shoes and purses, and it's important to avoid jewellery that contains real pearls or feathers.

Luckily, there are plenty of vegan materials to choose from that offer just as much style and luxury as their non-vegan counterparts. It's useful to seek out bridal boutiques and tailors that either specialise in vegan clothing or have a dedicated line of vegan garments. Make sure you inform businesses about your vegan requirements before you visit so that they have time to prepare garments and materials that are suitable for you.

40 Knots Winery, Vegan Wedding

3. Encourage Guests to Taste New Dishes with a Vegan Buffet

A difficulty many vegan wedding planners come up against is reluctance from guests to eat vegan dishes. Unfortunately, many people believe that vegan food is bland and boring, or that they'll come up against new flavours and textures that they won't enjoy. Vegan dishes can be just as delicious and satisfying as dishes that contain meat and dairy, and once you introduce people to good quality vegan food, they soon realise these stereotypes are wrong.

A great way to overcome cynicism from non-vegan wedding guests is to have buffet-style dining. Guests can pick and choose the dishes that look most appealing to them, and they have an opportunity to sample lots of different foods at once. You won't have to worry about guests going hungry when there's plenty of variety on offer to suit all tastes. Plus, you can showcase the deliciousness of vegan food and change some attitudes about veganism along the way.

Buffets are also a good way to reduce food waste. 15% of wedding guests only eat one or two of their three courses when sitting down to a traditional wedding breakfast. With a buffet, people can tailor servings to their appetites more easily.

Celebrate in Style with An Ethical Reception

While planning your wedding reception might be a little trickier as a vegan, the extra work will pay off as you enjoy your special day safe in the knowledge that your celebration is as ethical as possible.

New Blog
August 30, 2022 | New Blog

What to Know About Vineyard Ownership: Do You Have What it Takes?

40 Knots, Vineyard Ownership

You've probably dreamed about owning a vineyard. Who hasn't? The romantic notions of tending to grapevines, making wine, and hosting visitors from all over the world are hard to resist. When you live in wine country, the temptation can pull even more strongly. But before you take the plunge into vineyard ownership, you must understand what you're getting yourself into.

Choosing a Location

Finding the perfect place to put a vineyard isn't only a matter of acreage and zoning—prospective buyers need to consider everything from the orientation toward the sun to the soil's acidity. Buyers should also consider the land's topography, as hillsides can affect everything from maintaining the temperature (cool air sinks and can "roll" down a slope) to the timing of the grapes' life cycle. Other essential factors include proximity to markets and infrastructure and the overall cost of the agriculture property.

By considering as many factors as possible, buyers can choose a location that will give them the best chance for success.

Soil Quality & pH Balance

A vineyard's soil is critical because it affects the drainage and nutrient levels available to the vines. Vines do best in well-drained soils, and grapes planted in such an environment tend to deliver more concentrated flavours and aromas. "Loamy" is often used as a descriptor for the ideal grape-growing soil, typically a crumbly mix of sand, silt, and clay blended with the rest of the soil. Gravelly soils tend to drain well.

However, there's definitely such a thing as too much of a good thing. Soil that's heavy in clay can trap water around the roots. Look for soil that's highly porous and retains heat.

While grape varietals have different pH requirements, grapes prefer slightly acidic soil, with a pH balance of 5.5–6.0. It's possible to ameliorate the soil if it's too acidic by raising the pH balance with limestone, but finding land that naturally has the proper pH balance is less hassle.

Selecting the Right Grape Varietals

The climate is one of the most important factors determining a vineyard's ideal grape varieties, as it will directly impact the types of grapes that can be grown. Grapes need warm summers and cool winters to thrive. Some varietals are more vulnerable to unexpected frosts; others have higher sun requirements. Working with a professional viticulturist is a good idea.

Vineyard owners don't have to limit themselves to just one type of grape—many vineyards with wineries will plant multiple species to blend into their final product.

There's good news for grape growers, however. While location and climate are essential factors in deciding which grapes to plant, don't expect to be "trapped" into any particular variety. Vineyard owners in Canada, for example, have found success in growing over 60 grape varieties in the Okanagan Valley. There's plenty of room to create unique wines.

Other Location Factors For Your Vineyard

There's more to a vineyard than the grapes it grows, so expect to do a lot of research before buying a parcel of land. Prospective growers will want to consider every angle, such as utilities, infrastructure, and more. It also wouldn't go amiss to ask potential neighbours if there's anything you should know about the area. Winemakers can run into unexpected challenges.

"Water rights," says Keith Wallace, a winemaker, professor, and founding member of the National Wine School. "When working in Napa, this became a growing issue. The other major challenge was getting top-tier labour for harvest."

Vineyards also don't exist in a vacuum. Therefore, prospective growers need to consider where they'll be able to buy needed materials and eventually sell their products.

Upfront Prices: How Much Does it Cost to Buy a Vineyard?

40 Knots, buying a vineyard

The cost of buying a vineyard can vary widely, depending on the property's location, size, and amenities. It can also vary depending on how developed the property is. When someone says they're "buying a vineyard," they can mean several things, including:

Buying undeveloped agricultural land
Buying an already-planted vineyard
Buying a producing vineyard complete with winery equipment

Naturally, the prices will reflect how much work the new owner will have to do to start their business. Owners should also consider their end goals. For example, if a grower plans on selling grapes rather than wine, they can skip some of the upfront equipment costs.

Cost of Vineyard Land

Vineyards in well-established wine regions like Napa Valley or Kelowna will typically cost more than properties in less developed areas. However, there's a good reason "wine countries" are where they are – they have fantastic climate and soil conditions for growing wine-worthy grapes.

A general rule of thumb for the size of a profitable vineyard is a minimum of five acres if you plan to sell directly to the consumer and a minimum of 10 acres if you plan to sell wine to wholesale markets.

In the Okanagan Valley, a producing five- to 10-acre vineyard with existing structures on the property (such as homes and warehouses) will typically list from the high $800s to around $4 million CAD. In California's Napa Valley, prices for planted vineyards run from around $350,000 to $1 million USD per acre.

Cost of Planting a Vineyard

If your vineyard isn't already planted, you'll have to factor in the cost of the grapevine seedlings, the labour involved in the planting, and equipment such as trellises, irrigation systems, and more. When calculating how much it costs to plant your vineyard, you also need to consider the terrain—a steeply sloped vineyard that needs infrastructure installed can cost tens of thousands more to plant than a flat field.

Vineyard owners will often apply extra nutrients to amend the soil, so they'll also need to factor that in. They'll also want to budget for annual vineyard maintenance, which can amount to several thousand dollars per acre.

Equipment Required for Maintaining a Winery

To successfully maintain a winery, you'll need the following items:

Crusher Destemmer: Detaches the grapes from the stalks and crushes to allow the juice to flow out, aiding fermentation.
Wine Press: Separates the grape juice/fermented wine from the skins, seeds, and pulp. Bladder presses are the favoured option but are more expensive than basket presses. The difference is in how the grapes are squeezed, which affects the quality and quantity of the resulting juice.

Wine Tanks: Also called amphora tanks and typically made of stainless steel, but also can be made from concrete, plastic, or oak wood. These are used for storage, fermentation, blending, and bottling.

Must and Wine Pumps: A must pump can accommodate and move entire crushed grapes. Wine pumps transfer fermented wine and aren't meant to accommodate solids.

Safety Equipment: Proper safety gear and equipment is essential for keeping employees safe while working with equipment and machinery.

Lab Equipment: Proper testing equipment in a wine lab is vital for quality control beyond taste and smell.
Bottling Equipment: A wine bottling line includes bottle rinsers, fillers, corkers, cappers, labellers, and other accessories.

Vineyard Operational Costs

40 Knots, buying vineyard

Once the foundation is in place, vineyard owners can move on to operational costs. Here are some of the most common operational costs for vineyards:

Vineyard Maintenance: How Many Employees Does a Vineyard Need?

Growing grapes is a year-round activity that includes pruning, trellising, pest control, canopy management, and more. If you don't have a large enough staff to complete all the required tasks, you may need to outsource or hire seasonal workers. You'll need to find workers with the skill to evaluate and prune dormant vines, specialists to maintain equipment, managers if the operation is large enough, etc.

Fuel, Utilities, and Materials

Not only do you need to power the pumps and other equipment, but the wine needs to be kept at a specific optimum temperature throughout fermentation. Wine bottles awaiting sale will need to be stored in a climate-controlled space. Irrigation will need to be managed according to the weather.

Grapes or wine need to be adequately packaged for storage or transport—not to mention purchasing bottles, producing labels, and other material requirements.

If the wine is being shipped rather than sold on-site, you must factor in shipping prices, vehicle fuel and maintenance, and other applicable costs.

Insurance is important to protect your investment, employees, and customers. Also, don't forget to keep your liquor license up-to-date.

Marketing & Tasting Room Costs

Once you've made the perfect bottle, you need a way to tell the world about it! In addition to physical marketing materials, creating and maintaining a website, social media accounts, and a Google My Business profile is a good idea so your customers can easily find you.

Many vineyards have tasting rooms where visitors can pay to sample the wine. If you plan to open a tasting room on your vineyard property, you'll need to factor in construction costs, supplies, staff, and marketing.

As you can see, there are many factors to consider when determining how much it costs to start a vineyard.

The Grape Lifecycle: How Much Time it Takes to Make Wine

40 Knots, buying vineyard

Buying a vineyard is a long-term investment—it's generally at least four or five years before owners start seeing income from selling wine. To put things into perspective, here's a quick overview of everything that needs to happen before the wine ends up in the bottle.

  • Planting: Assuming you're doing the first planting yourself, it will generally take a young vine about three years of care to be ready to produce grapes.
  • Dormancy: Before each season, the vines will lack foliage, and winter pruning takes place. This is a skill-intensive process, as the pruning determines the balance of shoots and buds (leaves and grapes) and will affect how well the grapes grow and ripen
  • Bud Break & Flowering: In the spring—generally in April in the Okanagan Valley—the new flower buds and shoots emerge from the dormant vines. Flowering typically happens in June. Growers can start estimating the eventual yield by the number of flower clusters.
  • Fruit Set: Grapevines are self-pollinating plants, so young green berries quickly begin to form. Growers manage the canopy of leaves throughout the process to control heat, sun exposure, and the amount of energy the vine expends, producing leaves and lower-quality grapes, thus intensifying the remaining grapes. Pruning out the lower-quality grapes is called "green thinning" or "green harvesting."
  • Veraison: During this growth phase, the grapes begin to ripen and develop colour and sugar content. Veraison typically occurs in late August in Okanagan vineyards.
  • Harvest: The grape harvest in British Columbia typically begins in September and runs through late October. Some late-harvest wines will even be harvested into November as the vines go into dormancy and the grapes start to wither on the vine from lost water content, concentrating their sugars and flavours. For icewines, harvest continues into December, as icewine grapes need to be frozen at -8° Celcius for at least three days. Grapes can be harvested either by hand or by machine.
  • Pressing/Crushing: White wine grapes are pressed out of their skins before fermentation. On the other hand, reds are fermented with their skins to extract tannins and colour. The grapes are then run through a crusher/destemmer to release the juice.
  • Fermentation: Yeast is added to the resulting barrels to begin fermentation. Depending on the characteristics the grower is seeking in the final wine, fermentation can take several months or years. Some wines go through a secondary fermentation process with added bacteria for malolactic fermentation, which "softens" the wine by converting malic acid into smoother lactic acid.
  • Aging: White wines can be released soon after bottling, but reds are usually held back for months or years to continue development before sale.

Selling Your Wine

40 Knots, buying vineyard

After all that time and effort, you're finally ready to sell your wine. You may also consider hiring a sales team or working with a wine distributor to get your product into stores. You can also open a tasting room on-site at your vineyard, which can be a great way to connect with customers and build a following.

Where to Sell Wine

There are a few different ways to sell wine. You can sell it online, through a wine club, or directly to customers through a tasting room or vineyard events. You can sell to restaurants, grocery stores, and farmers' markets. You can also distribute your wine through a wine wholesaler. The best way to sell wine is the way that works best for you and your vineyard.

If you're a small operation, selling directly to customers through a tasting room or online might be the best way. However, working with a distributor or wholesaler might be a better option if you want to reach a larger audience.

Pricing Wine

The easy answer for how to price your wine is "however much people are willing to pay." Many factors go into this price, ranging from brand image and perceived value to the operational costs of the vineyard. Wines with a longer fermentation period are priced higher due to the time investment. Small wineries calculate prices differently than large operations because they invest their time and costs differently.

The three major costs that should be factored in are the vineyard, the production costs (such as picking and hand-sorting grapes), and sales and marketing.

Make Connections in the Industry

One of the best ways to get started in the wine industry is to connect with people already involved in it. Go to industry events, join trade organizations, and network with other growers and winemakers. You can also learn a lot by working at another vineyard or local winery, so don't be afraid to get your hands dirty and start at the bottom. The more you know about the industry, the better equipped you'll be to create a vineyard.

Owning a Winery Without Owning a Vineyard

40 Knots, buying a vineyard

Wineries and vineyards are two sides of the same coin. Just as there are vineyards that sell grapes rather than wine, there are wineries that buy their grapes rather than grow them.

Depending on which parts of winemaking spark your passion, you may find that investing in a winery only rather than a whole vineyard is more appealing.

However, that's not to say that winery ownership doesn't experience challenges. Lydia Martin, the founder of Liquor Laboratory, has this to say:

"The unexpected challenges that I faced upon starting a winemaking journey is that although there is an abundance of crop sources, there are seasons that these sources will become limited. My team and I actually started to experience this in the first year of our winemaking journey. It was a hard obstacle to overcome, but since this is a passion of ours and not just a business, we powered through this together and worked to find more crop sources for our wines. That's the thing about the wine business, I guess – you cannot stick to just one or two suppliers. On our end, we had diversified from local crops to actually importing an ample amount to keep the ball rolling and it has helped us through!"

It's Not All Challenges—There Are Many Rewards of Vineyard Ownership

40 Knots, buying a vineyard

Buying and running a successful vineyard is often more complicated than most people think. But if you're up for the challenge, it can be an immensely rewarding experience. There's nothing quite like making a product from scratch and being able to share it with others who appreciate it.

Many winemakers find the process itself can be unexpectedly enriching, too.

"Sometimes during crush, I didn't have time or the energy to go home, so I pitched a cot in the vineyard," says Wallace. "Best sleep I have ever gotten! Another unexpected but whole rewarding aspect of winemaking is the camaraderie, it didn't matter who you worked for or what your job was. It felt like family. And still does."

"This is not a journey that ends when business ends," says Martin. "If there ever comes a time that I will have to close down the business, I can keep the winemaking journey going by making personalized or customized bottles for loved ones and friends. Plus, winemaking is not really something that ends because when the time comes that I will be too old to go on, I'm sure my family will keep the winemaking journey going!"

Are You Ready to Take the Plunge?

There are many factors to consider when starting a vineyard, from the cost of land and grapes to the time commitment required for proper care. But if you're passionate about wine and willing to put in the work, vineyard ownership can be a hugely rewarding experience. Do you think you have what it takes to run a vineyard?

Dave Kotler

Time Posted: Aug 30, 2022 at 9:52 AM Permalink to What to Know About Vineyard Ownership: Do You Have What it Takes? Permalink Comments for What to Know About Vineyard Ownership: Do You Have What it Takes? Comments (3)
Roberto Lopez
February 27, 2022 | Roberto Lopez

How to Host a Wine Tasting Party at Home

Ah, wine. Whether you’re just cultivating your wine knowledge or you’re a seasoned, wine-loving expert with a cornucopia of adjectives at the ready like “leathery” and “dark berry”, a wine tasting party is a great way to mix up your entertaining game at home.

Wine tasting parties can be casual events, despite what visions might pop into your head when you picture an evening like this. Yes, you absolutely can go all out and rent expensive glassware, hire a sommelier, chef, and musical entertainment. Or, you can keep it casual and go potluck-style where all of your guests bring a bottle or two of wine for the group to taste. Wine tasting parties are flexible and should look and feel like the host—that’s you!

The Basics

Regardless of what your personal style is, there are a few things that will make your wine tasting a success:

At least one corkscrew. Probably a few, to be safe. That way, you can have a helper open wine with you.

Good quality glassware. It not only looks pretty, but good glassware helps to bring out the best qualities in the wines you’re tasting. While there are many different types of wine glasses, some great all-around options can work for all different kinds of wine. If you don’t want to invest in a set of nice wine glasses, consider renting from an event company. 

A decanter or two. This will allow you to decant one wine while pouring your current one for tasting. There are a lot of schools of thought from different sommeliers on how long to decant the wine for, but on the conservative end, sommeliers like Amanda McCrossin recommend no more than 25-30 minutes.

Neutral, simple palate cleansers. This should be something like water crackers or simple bread. Even things with butter or salt can distort your palate.

A bucket for getting rid of unwanted wine. Depending on your crowd, this might be considered sacrilege, but hey. Better to be safe!

Plenty of water. Make sure your guests stay hydrated.

Helpers to pour wine with you. If you have 8-10 people, it can take several minutes to make it around a room or table. Much easier with two people!

Glass charms or wine glass markers. If you’re going to be mingling around, these can be handy to make sure you do not have to wash glasses every two minutes, but if you’ll be seated, it’s probably not necessary.

Chillers for white wines. Ensuring your wines are served at the right temperature is critical to getting a good read on them. 

Pen and paper for each guest. Making tasting notes is fun and can be helpful to your guests the next time they’re pondering their wine selections. Encourage them to take notes on paper and take a photo of their notes at the end of the evening, so they have it to reference on their phones.

Everyone Loves a Theme Party (Right?)

Just kidding, this isn’t your eighth grade 70’s themed birthday party coming back to haunt you. Choosing a theme for your wine tasting event is less to do with costumes and more about what type of wine you’ll be featuring. 

Here are a few ways you can narrow down what your selection will be for the evening

By region – Choose your favorite region, or hit up your local wine store and ask for an expert recommendation on where a great place to start would be based on their selection. Some great regions that will give you a lot of variety are BC Canada, California, Argentina, South Africa, Italy, and France.

By varietal – If you tend towards a specific varietal like Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Gris, or Gamay, go with what you love! It’s always interesting to find new favorites.

By winery – Many wineries have a diverse selection that you might not necessarily know about if you get your wine from the same store each time. Check out their online selection and see what you can have shipped or ordered for you.

By value – This one is fun because it keeps things equal. Good wine isn’t necessarily expensive, so offering your guests the opportunity to try wines within a reasonable price bracket gives everyone the chance to find new wines they can afford.

Old World vs. New World – Basically, the Old World refers to Europe, and New World, everywhere else. This nomenclature is considered a bit dated by some parts of the wine community, but you’ll still see it used in many stores. 

Potluck! – If this is your first time hosting a wine tasting event and you want to test the water, having your guests each bring a bottle is a perfect way to host while still keeping costs manageable. Plus, you get to learn your friends’ taste in wine!

How many guests should I invite?

An ideal number is ten or fewer guests because of the amount of wine in each bottle. If you’re pouring two-ounce testers, you can expect to have one bottle cover ten guests. There is some room in here for inexact pours or guests asking for a re-taste, which will happen. If you want to have more than ten guests, you’ll have to prepare to double up on bottles.

How many wines should I taste?

Ideally, you’ll taste five wines during your tasting party. This is enough for your guests to enjoy a variety of wines without the tasting becoming too long and cumbersome. Also, the timing of this is best at twenty-minute intervals. This way, you’ll still give your guests time to mingle and chat after the tasting.

How much wine do I need?

If you’re thinking of a lighter tasting, you can plan for half a bottle per person, but a more reasonable expectation will be closer to one bottle per guest.

What temperature do I serve the wine at?

Each type of wine has an ideal range for drinking that allows the characteristics of the wine to be showcased best. You can ask specifically about the wine you choose at your wine store, but generally, bubbles 40-45 degrees, whites 40-50 degrees, and reds 55-65 degrees.  If you are drinking 40 Knots wine, simply check out the back label.

Should I hire a sommelier?  Give 40 Knots a call.  Perhaps one of our people is available, or we can recommend one that we know.  

Music and Atmosphere

The music of your wine tasting party is completely customizable to your taste. Whatever genre of music you and your guests will enjoy will enhance your experience. Just because you’re drinking wine doesn’t mean you have to wear a tailcoat and listen to classical piano. Be yourself! That being said, your music and lighting choices should allow your guests to hold a conversation between multiple people without having to be right next to each other. You want to create an environment of sharing and discussion, so make sure it’s not too loud or dark.

Food Pairing

Chances are unless you’re a whiz in the kitchen, it’ll be easier for you to put out small appetizers rather than have a seated meal while doing your wine tasting. But, if you’re thinking of dessert wines, that can be a great way to finish a seated meal.

One of the golden rules of choosing food for wine tasting parties actually has nothing to do with the type of appetizers you pick and everything to do with the amount. Plan for more food than you think—you’ll be giving your guests plenty of wine, so you want to make sure that they also have enough food to soak it up!

Call one of the experts at 40 Knots if you want some advice, or partake in the 40 Knots Perfectly Pairing Class.


Do’s & Don’ts Of Hosting a Wine Tasting

Here are three do’s and don’ts to help ensure your wine tasting party is a smash hit.


Give your guests time to mingle before the tasting. Nothing is worse than having a distracted crowd trying to catch up while you’re struggling to get their attention.

Make sure you have enough glassware. You can bet that glasses will be confused or misplaced, and you’ll want to have spares on hand.

Provide your guests with the info on where you got the wines from so they can purchase their favorites after.


Light scented candles. The same goes for having aromatic flower arrangements. The smell is a large part of wine tasting, and you don’t want anything overpowering the wine.

Rush your guests out right after you’re finished. So much of a wine tasting is about the conversation! You’ll want to plan to start your party early enough that when you’re done with the structured tasting part, your guests have plenty of time to share their experiences.

Choose wines that are too far out of most guests’ price range for your first event. We all love trying an expensive wine, but your first wine tasting party should make wine more accessible to your group.

There you go—you’re all set to host a smash hit of a wine tasting. The only thing you’ll have to worry about now is all of your friends asking you when the next one will be!

Originally posted on Porch.com

Time Posted: Feb 27, 2022 at 5:46 PM Permalink to How to Host a Wine Tasting Party at Home Permalink Comments for How to Host a Wine Tasting Party at Home Comments (165)
Evan Dunn
November 8, 2021 | Evan Dunn

How to Create the Perfect Wine Cellar in Your Home

For those who appreciate a good glass of wine, having the right storage makes pouring a nice glass of vino easy. A wine cellar will provide you with a place to organize your favorite bottles for easy access and stylish organization. Before wine lovers can celebrate this new addition, it’s important to decide what type of cellar you want. Whether it’s a secret stash of wine under the kitchen counters or a custom wine bar, you need to pick a spot where your wine will be stored. Think about the location, functionality, and aesthetics of your new wine cellar to help you design the ultimate spot. Read on for some tips that will help you create the perfect wine cellar at home.

Location and Other Considerations

Once you decide that a wine cellar is right for you, there are a few key things to consider. First, think about the location of your wine cellar and how much space it will take up in your home. If you have a basement, this can be a perfect spot for a new wine cellar. If you’re limited on space, you’ll need to find a designated part of your home where you can store a few bottles. A separate part of your kitchen can be a perfect place for a small wine cellar. You can even use the space under a staircase for unique wine storage. Make sure you take the location into consideration and choose the coolest area of your home or an area with higher levels of humidity. If the new wine cellar will be a major addition to your home, take the scope of the project into account. If you’re adding onto your home, think about structural changes like installing soffits and wall studs and putting up new drywall which can be costly and time-consuming.

Things to Consider Before You Build

Once you’re ready to build your wine cellar, there are a lot of crucial things to examine before you commit. Here are some key considerations to think about before you start designing your new cellar:

How will you use the wine cellar? Will it be a place where you can entertain friends or just a storage space for your favorite wines? Make sure you declutter the space and clean it thoroughly before you work on adding new elements to the structure.
Understand how to store and maintain your wine properly. Without the right storage conditions, wine can go bad which means your treasured bottle of vintage red wine could be wasted.
Look into adding specific components like the right insulation, a vapor or moisture barrier, and find ways to ensure that your wine cellar has an airtight seal.
Think about the materials you plan to use for your wine cellar. Glass may look nice, but it’s not a good insulator. If you have your heart set on a glass door, make sure it’s double glazed or that it features an argon-filled portion between two panes to keep the room insulated. Concrete is often used for basement walls, but it will need additional insulation if you plan to store wine there. Use plywood to cover existing walls or to build new walls since it can withstand moisture better than drywall.
Invest in a good, high-quality cooling unit to keep the temperature at an optimum level. While this may cost you a bit more upfront, it’s wise to invest in something high-quality to save you money in the long run. Basements tend to be extremely hot without the right cooling equipment in place.
You can build your own custom wine rack or choose a prebuilt rack that will accommodate your desired number of bottles.
Wine bottles come in a variety of shapes and sizes, so don’t forget to install racks or shelving that are adjustable or that feature different designs to fit different bottles.
Make sure you plan your budget in advance and try not to go over your limit. Talk to several contractors and get a few estimates if you don’t think you can stay within your budget by doing things DIY.

Maintaining Your Wine Cellar

While you definitely want your new wine cellar to look fabulous with some chic décor, it’s also important that you maintain it, so your bottles of wine remain in good condition. Here are some tips to ensure that your wine cellar is taken care of the right way:

The temperature and humidity levels need to be consistent for wine to stay fresh, so invest in a good digital thermometer and hygrometer. A hygrometer reads the humidity levels in the air to help you monitor the conditions in your wine cellar. Look for new products that feature wireless capabilities so you can check the status of your wine cellar from your phone.
Keep your wine cellar clean, and don’t let dust accumulate on the bottles. If a bottle breaks or something spills, clean it up immediately to prevent pests from making your wine cellar their home.
Install some soft lighting in your wine cellar so you can see everything clearly. Recessed lighting is a good choice for basements since they won’t take up too much space. Choose lightbulbs that emit a soft, warm light and avoid harsh ultra-bright lights that could compromise the integrity and flavor of your wine. LED lights are a good option since they don’t produce a lot of heat.
If possible, choose an area of your home that doesn’t have direct sunlight. If your wine cellar has windows, make sure you cover them with a good set of blinds or some quality room darkening curtains.

Wine Storage Guide

Maintaining your wine cellar is important, but you also want to make sure that your wine is stored properly.

If wine is exposed to sunlight, the amino acids can oxidize and change the flavor. Keep your wine in a cool, dark place out of direct sunlight and away from fluorescent lights. White wine is especially vulnerable to sunlight since most wineries bottle it in clear glass. Smell your wine when you open it and look for any unpleasant smells which could mean that it has already become oxidized.
Store wine bottles with corks on their side instead of upright. This will slow down the oxidation process and keep the cork moist, so it doesn’t rot or fall apart. You can store twist-top bottles upright, but ideally, all wine should be laid in racks horizontally.
Once you open a bottle of wine, it doesn’t typically last more than a week. White wine and rose can last about five to seven days in the fridge if it’s re-corked. Red wine should last about three to five days if you replace the cork and store it in a cool, dark place.
You may be surprised to learn that wine can actually absorb strong odors. If wine is exposed to things like onions or even the trash can in your kitchen, those odors can permeate the cork and get into the wine over time. Avoid exposing your wine to strong odors by keeping it separated from everything else in your home. Adding a door with an airtight seal will help to keep unpleasant odors from seeping into your wine cellar.
Your wine racks can be made of anything you like including solid wood or metal. It’s easy to make DIY wine racks yourself if you want to save money. You can even choose your favorite type of wood and finish it in your desired color for a custom look. Just make sure you make enough racks to hold plenty of bottles with room to spare.

Store and Care for Your Wine in Style

A custom wine cellar is a great way to keep your wine safely stored. Look for some unique inspiration online to add décor and lighting to this space, especially if you plan to use it for entertaining or tastings. You can create your wine cellar DIY or hire a contractor if you’re planning to make major changes to your home. If you’re just choosing a small space like an area under a staircase, creating your own wine cellar DIY should be a fairly easy process. Make sure you follow these tips about how to store your wine properly so that it lasts for many years until you’re ready to open it.

 Creating a custom wine cellar in your home is a great way to enjoy your favorite bottles of wine while keeping them protected. Look for unique design ideas and inspiration that will help you add a personal touch to your storage space. Keep wine bottles out of direct sunlight and check the air temperature and humidity levels to ensure they’re always at a consistent level. With these simple tips, your new wine cellar is sure to be the envy of the neighborhood.


Time Posted: Nov 8, 2021 at 4:42 PM Permalink to How to Create the Perfect Wine Cellar in Your Home Permalink Comments for How to Create the Perfect Wine Cellar in Your Home Comments (1)
Ziggy Ziggy
February 26, 2021 | Ziggy Ziggy

Grape Vine and Fruit Tree Pruning

Grape Vine and Fruit Tree Pruning

The ideal time for Grape Vine and Fruit Tree Pruning is when they are dormant, to give them their best chance at. producing for you.   What you do this winter will affect your fruit yield for the next two years.

At 40 Knots, we listen to our customers.  Our service goes beyond serving a glass of wine.  We are proponents for traditional responsible farming, and nothing gets us more excited than chatting with a fellow farmer.  Whether you own a backyard or many acres, we love to help.  Farming is our passion.  Caring for the environment and leaving it better than what we found it, is in our blood.

Fruit Tree Pruning

A few years ago, we started delivering free workshops to those in our community.  With a Viticulturist and Aborist on staff, you are in great hands.  I think we have a total of about 120 years of experience in our small Crew.  Our workshop leaves you feeling confident.  And we leave feeling great about our contribution to farming on Vancouver Island.  We love hearing from those that attended about their great harvest and increase in yields and quality of fruit.

If you missed our annual workshop, here are a few Cole’s notes:

Fact:  No fruit grows on old wood.  If you want more fruit, you need to prune.

Fact:  A vigorous grapevine can produce 150-200 feet of linear new growth a year.

Fact:  Pruning is best when trees and vines are dormant.  In Vancouver Island, it is usually after Christmas.

Fact:  To prepare for dormancy ensure you supply food and water to protect

Safety Equipment:  Buddy up if you are needing to use a ladder.  Always wear gloves, eye protection, and proper footwear.

Tools:  Use sharp tools and if you notice any disease, use peroxide to disinfect your tools before moving to another branch or vine.  You can actually pass disease if you don’t do this.

Design:  Choose a design, and don’t be scared. Especially with vines.  In some countries, they are considered a weed and they are very resilient.  You can find many designs on the internet.  I would list them all here, but it is a blog after all.

Age:    Young trees should be at least 3 years old before pruning.

Canopy:  Consider that you will need sunlight and protection, and this is where canopy management comes in.  You will be a good balance of vegetative growth to ripen the crop yet sufficient fruitful buds to provide adequate yield.

Suckers and Dead Wood:  Always remove suckers and deadwood.  If there is only one thing you do for your trees and vines, this is the one.

Fruit Tree Pruning

Meet Andy on Youtube as he explains apple tree pruning:

Sign up to 40 Knots newsletter HERE so you are the first person to hear about any community workshops.

Sign up to be a 40 Knots Farmer during our harvest HERE.

Time Posted: Feb 26, 2021 at 12:23 PM Permalink to Grape Vine and Fruit Tree Pruning Permalink
Ziggy Ziggy
December 27, 2020 | Ziggy Ziggy

Carbon Emissions and Net-Zero

Green Step Tourism

This is a big, big topic.  And we are not experts.  But we do know, that we have choices.  2020 has taught us many things.  We consume less, we buy what we need, and we buy Local first.  When purchasing, we consider the carbon footprint of the goods.  (What is the impact on those plastic forks shipped here from a factory in China?)

What does it mean to be Net-Zero?  There is a lot of information out there.  We chose to be a Gold Certified member of Green Step Tourism for their guidance and because of their very tough certification process, which assists us to be continuously diligent.  We are not experts, but we like what we have experienced since becoming members in 2016.  

And we continue to research and learn.  I came across this blog.  Sadly, I don't see Canada mentioned. 

World Resources Institute

And then I found a calculator!  Right or wrong, I used this one.  I was super happy to see how low my carbon (paw) footprint was but was shocked to see how high our country's carbon footprint was.

Carbon Footprint Calculator for homes

If 2020 showed us anything, it showed how we could use less and use smarter.  

Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

And so in 2021, I commit to doing my part.

I Declare a Climate Emergency

40 Knots Winery has signed up to Tourism Declares, an initiative that supports tourism businesses, organizations, and individuals in declaring a climate emergency and taking purposeful action to reduce their carbon emissions as per the advice from The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to cut global carbon emissions to 55% below 2017 levels by 2030. 

Like all signatories, we have committed to the following five actions:

1. Develop a ‘Climate Emergency Plan’ within the next 12 months, which sets out our intentions to reduce carbon emissions over the next decade.

2. Share an initial public declaration of our ‘Climate Emergency Plan’, and update on progress each year.

3. Accept current IPCC advice stating the need to cut global carbon emissions to 55% below 2017 levels by 2030 in order to keep the planet within 1.5 degrees of warming. We’ll ensure our ‘Climate Emergency Plan’ represents actions designed to achieve this as a minimum, through delivering transparent, measurable, and increasing reductions in the total carbon emissions per customer arising from our operations and the travel services sold by us. 

4. Encourage our suppliers and partners to make the same declaration; sharing best practice amongst peers; and actively participate in the Tourism Declares community

5. Advocate for change. We recognize the need for system change across the industry to accelerate a just transition towards carbon-free tourism.

The Crew at 40 Knots Winery

Are you a Tourism Business?  Join us HERE

Time Posted: Dec 27, 2020 at 8:07 AM Permalink to Carbon Emissions and Net-Zero Permalink
Michael Johnson
October 9, 2020 | Michael Johnson

Sipster Vol.4

Becoming a Sipster vol. 4

Hello my friends, greetings, and salutations to you all on this auspicious day. The seasons, they are a-changing. Usually, I’d follow up with “where has the time gone?” or “this year is flying by” but that would be a big fat lie. It has been a long year for all of us and it’s not over yet. In fact for us at 40 Knots the year is only ramping up. This sipster is pumped for harvest time! 

This will be my first harvest so I am looking forward to really getting into it and learning as much as I can. By the time harvest is over I hope to have a few stories for volume 5 but first I need to get out there! I’ve been told it is hard yet rewarding work. Equal parts toil and celebration. So it’s pretty much just like the rest of life. And like life, you don’t always get what you want, but if you try, sometimes you might just get what you need. Okay, I stole that from the Stones but the sentiment is true. You don’t always get what you want when it comes to harvest. Something all farmers know and the rest of us take for granted is that you can do everything right and still not get the harvest you want. Mother nature is a fickle mistress. Weather, bugs, gremlins, all manner of forces conspiring to decimate the fruits of our labor. Time itself is against us! In the face of such insurmountable odds, it would be easy to give up yet we perceiver. Our wine, our time, it’s all worth it. Because someday very soon we will have all the turkey and drink we want! We will give cheers and celebrate this...interesting year.

Whether its growing grapes, raising a family, or working in an office, we might not always get the reward we expect for the amount of time we put in. But if we are present and we really try, I think you will find, you might just get what you need.

Speaking of not always getting what I want but definitely getting what I need my wife Alana has agreed to help me with a wine tasting tonight!

Mike: “Hey, thanks for helping me with this tasting tonight, first off what are we drinking, I meant ‘tasting’?”

Alana: “This is our 2019 White Seas. Literally the fruits of our labor in one bottle.”

Mike: “Literally how?”

Alana: “Well, when you pour a glass of White Seas your sampling a blend of six of our very own varietals grown right here on the farm. You’re experiencing our biodynamic farming methods, our terroir, and our climate. White Seas is a beautiful representation of 40 Knots as a whole. It says a lot about us.”

Mike: “Soooo now we drink?”

Alana: “No first we look.” Alana tilts the glass at 45 degrees above the white table cloth. “What do you see?”

Mike: Mimics Alana. “What do you see first?”

Alana: “I see a pale gold horseshoe. It’s clear in the center and gold around the outside.”

Mike: “Oh I see it! Now we taste?”

Alana: “No, we smell.” Alana swirls the wine glass and inhales the bouquet with her dominate nose hole(she means nostril)

Mike: Mimics Alana “I smell fruit and rain!”

A: “That’s a good way to explain it, the fruit is coming from the varying characteristics of each varietal. The rain...minerality from our glacier tilled soil.”

M: “Seen it smelt it, now can we have a taste?”

A: “Yes.”

M: Takes a sip makes an obnoxious slurping sound.

A: “How does it feel on your palate?”

M: “Like little bubbles maybe?”

A: “That's the effervescence from our bottling process. (CO2?)

M: “Interesting, what else?”

A: “Try this, take a good sip swirl it around then tilt your head forward. Pay attention to your saliva glands. This is a good way to taste the acidity or lack thereof. My mom taught me that.”

M: Follows instructions, drools saliva on leg. “So is that a good thing?”

A: “Yes! We are fortunate to have a cooler climate which means higher acidity. Which makes it easier to balance the wines acid and sucrose levels.” (FACT CHECK) What else do you taste?

M: “I guess maybe some apple, like a tart granny smith apple. But at the same time kind of peachy?”

A: “Tropical fruit, tart lemon, spice. The spice comes from the pinot noir. Juices pressed off the skins. Add spice to the finish. Similar to Gewurtztraminer.”

M: “Gesundheit!”

A: “Very funny. It might seem like a lot but its really about each person’s own palate and enjoyment. There isn’t really any right or wrong answer, do you like it or don’t you?”

M: “I love it actually. I love you and thanks for trying to teach me a few things about White Seas!”

I thank you for reading this, we encourage you to pick up a bottle of White Seas and taste for yourselves. Maybe you agree maybe you have another opinion. Share it with us and my wife will be happy to argue...with anyone...anytime...anywhere.


Time Posted: Oct 9, 2020 at 1:27 PM Permalink to Sipster Vol.4 Permalink
Michael Johnson
August 8, 2020 | Michael Johnson

Sipster Vol.3

Welcome back, friends! This is Part 3 of my ongoing foray into grape life as a self-proclaimedSipster. It has been a tough few months for all of us, yet here we are and I am very thankful.  I’m thankful for health and safety of our friends and families. I’m thankful that I was able to continue to work this whole time.  I am thankful to all the frontline workers who had our backs throughout!  I'm sending a huge shout out to everyone who donated community cups.  It was a pleasure delivering them to the R.C.M.P. officers, the Comox by-law offers and the hospital and ambulance essential workers. A lot of love was shared over the past several months and I think it was the positivity and support that floated us through. I know that we as a local business couldn’t have done it without all the local support and the support of our wine club members everywhere.  Thank you!

Some things have changed, there were hoops to jump... I mean regulations to follow in order to re-open safely. All the extra steps have slowed some of the services but increased the safety of our customers and staff exponentially. So I’d say it’s a fair trade. I wanted “Slow and in control helps keep the corona low!” on our chalkboard but I couldn’t sell it.  I’ll work on some more slogans.

What I think is most important now, is that we can celebrate again. Wine Wednesdays are back, our employees are back and the tasting room is opened!  In fact, one of the good things to come of all of this was the new format for tastings.  My wife Alana says the tastings have become more intimate with more storytime and more sharing.  More leisurely like wine should be. 

Sounds nice right? I wouldn’t know.  I’ve been sweating away in the vineyard here as well as the vines on Quadra!  Yes, we are farming another vineyard on Quadra island, complete with an apple orchard. As well we are farming another orchard to the south of us.  Rumour has it we might be dabbling in some traditional sparkling apple wine. But first I have to get through harvest.

If you haven’t been out to the winery lately, our vines are growing like crazy. I’ll add some pictures for you of both vineyards and see if you can guess which is which. The toiling is paying dividends because we got little baby grapes or “bapes” peeking out everywhere.

I keep meaning to do a smoldering exposé on how we make our traditional Brut and Soleil Rose but I'm always playing catch up with so much stuff going on!  I do want to give a shout out to the amazing people who were on the bottling line the past couple of weeks, we couldn’t do it without you and I had fun popping all those bottles. I can’t express enough how much support and dedication it takes to keep a winery as large as 40 Knots going. It literally takes a whole community. That’s why I’m so proud when we are able to give back. The donations to our frontline workers or Agriculture for Autism initiative Brenda and Layne have been involved in for six years or the open vocal support of our LGBTQ community, I’m going to put an, etc here because I could go on and on but that’s what being part of a community is.  I for one am proud of our not so little farm.  We are cultivating grapes and love. Come by and visit soon, bring your whole family.

Time Posted: Aug 8, 2020 at 9:59 AM Permalink to Sipster Vol.3 Permalink
Michael Johnson
May 4, 2020 | Michael Johnson

Becoming a Sipster, Volume 2

Becoming a Sipster Vol.2

Everything changes.

This was my mantra while I was trying to figure out how to write Volume 2 of becoming a Sipster.   I am now reconciling the person I have become, with the one I was, when I started the first blog. I had some grandiose ideas back then.   I had a planned trajectory for how this series of little stories would transpire. There have been at least four months between Sipster Volume 1 and now.  I have learned much more about the art of winemaking and the joy of sustainable farming.

Everything changes.

A lot of parallels can be made between life and wine. I’m sure better writers than me can really wax-poetic about the life cycle of grapes and how it symbolizes the life of a human being. But that’s cheese and I’m not in the cheese-making business. Although as a side note Natural Pastures are true artisans.  I digress.

A lot of parallels can be made between life and grapes.  Both are subjected to mother-nature and both have some of their own control.  At the same time, they differ on the most fundamental level. Making wine is structured, carefully planned, and well thought out, followed by concise execution.  Life is chaos with many more effects beyond our control.

As I drive through the vineyard on my repurposed golf cart, hauling organics to the compost pile, I marvel at the rows upon rows of precisely pruned vines. Their twin cordons just now sprouting little fuzzy buds at almost the exact time they did last year and the year before that. The symmetry of the careful spacing and design matched by the symmetry of their growth from all the years they existed on our land at 40 Knots. It’s beautiful and their wonder isn’t lost on me. There is something pure about all those acres teeming with new life.  I am beginning to understand their life cycles, and how to support them through what Layne is teaching me.  I can honestly say I learn something new every day.

Winemaking seems daunting.  Foremost is the time it takes. Some of our wines have been in aging for years.  And wine does not just lay around, many exciting things are happening in their vessel.  Back before I even started at 40 Knots, those vines had been pruned, the grapes were harvested, crushed, filtered, and gently set to rest, year after year.   

I sampled the Pinot Noir 2018 from amphora yesterday and it filled me with appreciation. This ambrosia had started its life as little fuzzy buds years ago and now it was in my glass. Soon it will be in bottles so that you may experience it in your glass.  As you sip, I encourage you to think of this cycle and the history that this wine has experienced.

As I sip this history, I think about how everything changes.  In a few short months, how uncertain things became.  All the while this wine from out of time has just been doing its thing, impervious to the chaos of our lives.

“Clean ethical wines are our promise. Great wines are not made in the tank and the barrel. Great wines come from the vineyard.”   I now understand why Layne believes this.  You have to believe in the product you put into those tanks, barrels, or amphoras.  It will be months to years before you know the result.  More important than belief is knowledge, it’s not enough to throw it all together and hope for the best. That’s where best practice and tradition comes in. Wine has been around for thousands of years and by studying the best practices of other countries and other winemakers, we can stand on the backs of giants and make a great wine that’s rooted in tradition yet uniquely ours.  Even so, I suppose it’s not always perfect. Sometimes a batch doesn’t turn out the way you expect it.   

Then there are all the times that bottle of vino exceeds our expectations. We come together as friends and family around the dinner table to share what man and nature have created together.  Upon looking around the table, we understand that man and nature have also created energy and love around the table.  Yes, we have experienced lesser wines and lesser moments.  All the more reason to celebrate finer wines and special moments.

Everything changes.

Time Posted: May 4, 2020 at 9:28 AM Permalink to Becoming a Sipster, Volume 2 Permalink
Michael Johnson
April 13, 2020 | Michael Johnson


My Quest to Become a “Sipster.”

Chapter 1: Two Types of Wine.


Not long ago I thought there were only two types of wine, expensive and cheap. Even the color made little difference to me when I was expected to grab a bottle for some dinner or another at a friend’s place. I picked one that was in the middle of the road for pricing and hoped for the best. If someone at dinner recognized it and paid it a compliment, then I would take credit for the choice. If they complained I said that the person at the liquor store recommended it. So it went for many a year, buying wines at random, sometimes winning sometimes losing. I had no emotional stake in wine whatsoever. Back then I valued alcohol quantity over quality. A 24 of beer could be purchased for the same price as single bottle of wine. Economical!

Then in 2014 my mother and father in law bought a winery. Out of nowhere two very influential people, renowned in their professions, gave their notice then sold their assets in Fort St. John BC to buy a winery on Vancouver Island! You can’t make this stuff up. Needless to say, my wife Alana was a little excited at the prospect. I seen in her eyes the reflection of vines and waves, the spark of a dream she hadn’t dared dream but was now a possible reality.  Suddenly I was being sent to the liquor store with concise instructions. Words like ‘pairing’ and ‘pinot something or other’ were becoming relevant to what I was purchasing. Yet I held firm, I was a bearded beer drinking man from the wild Canadian west and wine was fancy people drink.

The years passed as they tend to do and I found myself being forced to try more wine in order to be polite. I watched with feigned interest as they swirled their glasses then gingerly sniffed at what they called aroma or made comments about the clarity. “When in Rome” I thought as I copied them in order to fit in. It was a farce at first then suddenly out of nowhere I was pleasantly punched in the palate by Layne’s Pinot Noir, 2014 I believe. I couldn’t begin to quantify it. Like when I was a young lad and saw Michelle Pfeiffer as Catwoman for the first time, something fundamental that I didn’t yet understand changed inside of me. A veil fell from my eyes and I was rocked by the first of many startling revelations, people didn’t just drink wine to get drunk, it could taste good! Not only that but it could be used to enhance the taste of my food or the light of a sunset. I felt like I had been holding my golf club the wrong way all these years and was suddenly able to mitigate my slice. A wind from the west coast had blown clear a hidden path and to my chagrin I truly wanted to follow it.

So my quest for ambrosia began and fortunately for me I had a head start. If you haven’t yet guessed my in laws Brenda and Layne purchased 40 Knots winery and I can attest it has been a true labour of love for them. My wife Alana began spending summers at the winery helping and before long we were moving to the coast. I signed on full time December 2019 and will never look back. Everyday I learn a little more of the style and science it takes to craft fine wine and its as interesting as it is tasty. I had been missing out and I don’t want any of you to make the same mistake. Therefore, I am reaching out to all my brothers and sisters who may harbour a booze bias. Like you I love beer & whiskey, I’ve just learned that wine offers different yet equally enjoyable experience. Wine is a potent potion of love or enchanting flavour enhancer for dinner when selected correctly. It’s something you should equip in your arsenal for 2020 ladies and gents.

In closing allow me to give you this parting advice. If you think wine is something fancy for ‘other’ people, then like me you just haven’t had the proper experience. It can be as accessible or extravagant as you desire. It might also be daunting when you are just starting out, so I recommend taking the easy way like I did and learning from people who are not only knowledgeable but passionate about their product. Take the first step by coming in to 40 Knots for a free tasting. You have nothing to lose and you might just be surprised.

Tell them Mike sent you or ask for me personally, I’ll be the guy with the big black beard smiling because when you love what you do, you never really work a day in your life…maybe leave that part out if you talk to my boss.


Stay tuned for Chapter 2: Riddle Me This!

Time Posted: Apr 13, 2020 at 2:10 PM Permalink to Sipster Permalink